Odorat et goût
Author: Roland Salesse, Rémi Gervais
Publisher: Editions Quae
Dans notre vie quotidienne, nous aimons sentir les "bonnes odeurs" et, par tradition nationale gourmande, nous cultivons volontiers "le goût des bonnes choses". Mais, quand nous sollicitons notre odorat et notre goût, nous ne nous posons guère de questions sur le fonctionnement de ces sens, pourvu que le plaisir soit au rendez-vous. On méconnaît l'importance et la signification des signaux chimiques présents dans l'environnement et leur influence sur les comportements sociaux, sexuels et alimentaires (des comportements essentiels à la survie des individus et des espèces, depuis les insectes jusqu'à l'homme). Par ailleurs, il est assez paradoxal de voir que l'agroalimentaire et la parfumerie-cosmétique, deux secteurs importants de l'économie française dont l'activité est largement basée sur "le bon goût français", ne sont pas soutenus par un effort de recherche proportionnel à leur place économique. C'est pourquoi, près de vingt ans après la découverte des récepteurs olfactifs, consacrée par l'attribution du prix Nobel de physiologie et médecine à Linda Buck et Richard Axel, nous avons souhaité faire le bilan des apports de la biologie moléculaire et de la neurobiologie expérimentale dans le domaine des sens olfactif et gustatif. Cet ouvrage s'adresse prioritairement aux étudiants, aux chercheurs, aux médecins, mais aussi aux industriels de l'agroalimentaire et de la parfumerie. Il offre un large exposé des résultats scientifiques de ces dernières années ainsi qu'une sélection d'applications actuelles et futures.
Evidence-based, yet entirely practical, this important new text builds upon the basics of neuroscience to describe the links between olfaction and animal behaviour, and the effects of odours in animal welfare. Animals use smells in a multitude of ways: to orientate themselves, to create social bonds, to recognise food, to initiate reproduction, and to avoid predators and imminent threats such as fire. Starting from the scientific basis of olfaction and odour perception, the book covers pheromones and behavioural tests, before describing the role of olfaction in feeding behaviour, reproduction, disease detection, and animal housing. This is a captivating introduction to the world of smells, suitable for advanced students, researchers, and teachers of applied ethology, animal welfare and veterinary science.
Author: Herbert L Meiselman
Publisher: Woodhead Publishing
Emotion Measurement reviews academic and applied studies in order to highlight key elements of emotions which should be considered in the development and validation of newer commercial methods of emotion measurement. The goal of the book is practical, but the approach will be both academic and applied. It is aimed primarily at sensory scientists and the product developers they work alongside who require knowledge of measuring emotion to ensure high levels of consumer acceptability of their products. The book begins with a review of basic studies of emotion, including the theory, physiology, and psychology of emotions – these are the standard studies of which food and sensory scientists as well as product developers need to be aware. The next section highlights methods for studying emotions on a relatively basic level. The book then moves to practical applications, with chapters on emotion research in food and beverage, as well as in a range of product and clinical settings. Finally, there is a treatment of cross-cultural research on emotions. This is critical because much of the newer commercial research is aimed at markets around the world, requiring methods which work in many cultures. The book ends with an integrative summary of the material presented. Serves as the first book on the market on emotion measurement aimed at sensory scientists and production development practitioners working in commercial R and D Also useful for psychologists with an interest in emotion Brings together applied and academic strands of emotion measurement research for the first time Focuses on cross-cultural studies of emotions, which is currently lacking from most of the literature in the field
L'agriculture est la première activité humaine avec 1,3 milliard d'actifs, soit près du quart de la population mondiale et la moitié de la population active. L'espace cultivé - c'est-à-dire l'espace où l'homme planifie et pilote directement le couvert végétal - représente aujourd'hui plus de 20 % des terres émergées. Face aux défis de la démographie et de la pauvreté, les systèmes agricoles, dans toutes leurs diversités, sont appelés à s'intensifier et à renforcer leur production de biens et de services, tout en se préparant à mieux affronter les risques et les incertitudes. Comment la biodiversité peut-elle contribuer à la transformation de ces agricultures ? La diversité du vivant a servi l'agriculture depuis ses débuts au néolithique. Mais l'activité agricole moderne a visé des rendements toujours croissants et homogènes, à force de recours massifs aux intrants et à l'énergie fossile. Cela avait fait oublier à quel point la biodiversité végétale, animale et microbienne est le moteur de tous les processus de production et de régulation des écosystèmes, tant cultivés que naturels. Mieux connaître et comprendre, remobiliser et planifier, en un mot, cultiver la biodiversité pour intensifier durablement la production et assurer la sécurité alimentaire mondiale remet les agricultures des pays du Sud au coeur des réflexions sur les transformations possibles. Cet ouvrage aborde la question sous différents angles et montre à quel point ces transformations ne sont pas limitées à la parcelle et à sa culture. Elles touchent en fait aux liens profonds entre les communautés paysannes et leur patrimoine vivant, dans leur façon de conserver cette agrobiodiversité et d'innover pour en tirer profit. Cet ouvrage s'adresse à un public scientifique, aux chercheurs et universitaires de nombreux domaines (écologie, génétique, sciences sociales, protection des plantes, agronomie, environnement, développement rural) ainsi qu'au grand public avisé.
The Beautiful Brain
Author: Larry W. Swanson, Eric Newman, Alfonso Araque, Janet M. Dubinsky
At the crossroads of art and science, Beautiful Brain presents Nobel Laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal’s contributions to neuroscience through his groundbreaking artistic brain imagery. Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) was the father of modern neuroscience and an exceptional artist. He devoted his life to the anatomy of the brain, the body’s most complex and mysterious organ. His superhuman feats of visualization, based on fanatically precise techniques and countless hours at the microscope, resulted in some of the most remarkable illustrations in the history of science. Beautiful Brain presents a selection of his exquisite drawings of brain cells, brain regions, and neural circuits with accessible descriptive commentary. These drawings are explored from multiple perspectives: Larry W. Swanson describes Cajal’s contributions to neuroscience; Lyndel King and Eric Himmel explore his artistic roots and achievement; Eric A. Newman provides commentary on the drawings; and Janet M. Dubinsky describes contemporary neuroscience imaging techniques. This book is the companion to a traveling exhibition opening at the Weisman Art Museum in Minneapolis in February 2017, marking the first time that many of these works, which are housed at the Instituto Cajal in Madrid, have been seen outside of Spain. Beautiful Brain showcases Cajal’s contributions to neuroscience, explores his artistic roots and achievement, and looks at his work in relation to contemporary neuroscience imaging, appealing to general readers and professionals alike.
Author: D. Muller-Schwarze
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Research on chemical communication in animals is in a very active and exciting phase; more species are studied, data are accumulating, concepts are changing, and practical application seems feasible. While most of the work on chemical ecology and chemical sig nals deals with insects, vertebrate communication provides a formidable challenge and progress has been slow. Joint efforts and frequent direct contacts of ecologists, behaviorists, psychologists, physiologists, histologists and chemists are required. Such an interdisciplinary exchange of information took place on the occasion of the Symposium on Chemical Signals in Vertebrates and Aquatic Animals in Syracuse, New York, from May 31 to June 2, 1979. More than one hundred investigators from seven countries participated, and the papers presented comprise this volume. Since the first Symposium on Vertebrate Chemical Signals at Saratoga Springs in 1976, considerable progress has been made with field studies, the physiology of the vomeronasal organ, and its role in reproductive behavior. The behavioral functions and chemi cal nature of priming pheromones are better understood. Efforts to isolate and identify mammalian pheromones are gaining ground, and the bioassays are becoming more sophisticated. In addition to formal presentations, one evening of the Symposi um was devoted to round-table discussions of particular topics. The selected themes indicate the "growing points" of chemical communi cation research: priming pheromones, vomeronasal organ, bioassay, and practical applications.
Author: Berndt Müller, Joachim Reinhardt, Michael T. Strickland
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
Neural Networks presents concepts of neural-network models and techniques of parallel distributed processing in a three-step approach: - A brief overview of the neural structure of the brain and the history of neural-network modeling introduces to associative memory, preceptrons, feature-sensitive networks, learning strategies, and practical applications. - The second part covers subjects like statistical physics of spin glasses, the mean-field theory of the Hopfield model, and the "space of interactions" approach to the storage capacity of neural networks. - The final part discusses nine programs with practical demonstrations of neural-network models. The software and source code in C are on a 3 1/2" MS-DOS diskette can be run with Microsoft, Borland, Turbo-C, or compatible compilers.
The Harvey Lectures
Author: Harvey Society
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This latest volume in the Harvey Lectures Series reflects "the evolution of physiology and physiological chemistry into biochemistry and the development of molecular biology from the roots of bacteriology and biochemistry" in the 20th and 21st centuries. This lecture series, collected and published annually, provides a series of distinguished lectures in the life sciences by world-renowned scientists in all areas of biomedicine. These lectures occur in New York City throughout the course of each academic year.
Author: Elisabeth Guichard, Christian Salles, Martine Morzel, Anne-Marie Le Bon
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
This book will cover all aspects of flavour perception, including aroma, taste and the role of the trigeminal nerve, from the general composition of food to the perception at the peri-receptor and central level. This book will answer to a growing need for multidisciplinary approaches to better understand the mechanisms involved in flavour perception. The book presents the bases of anatomy of sensory perception. It will provide the requisite basic knowledge on the molecules responsible for flavour perception, on their release from the food matrix during the eating process in order to reach the chemosensory receptors, and on their retention and release from and transformation by bodily fluids of the oral and nasal cavities. It will also bring current knowledge on the multimodal interactions. This book will also cover the recent evolution in flavour science: characterisation of molecules, interaction with food matrix and more recently, physic-chemical and physiological and events during oral processing increasingly considered.
Knowledge of hepatobiliary transport is increasing rapidly. This book provides a cutting-edge overview of hepatobiliary transport and the molecular pathogenesis of cholestasis. Topics range from basic mechanisms of transport and regulation to general molecular and cellular concepts of cholestatic liver injury to specific molecular mechanisms of hereditary and acquired cholestatic liver injury, their complications and treatment. Basic researchers, academic physicians and students in hepatology, genetics, molecular and cell biology, pharmacology, pathology, gastroenterology and endocrinology will find this book instructive and stimulating.
Enriched and Impoverished Environments: Effects on Brain and Behaviour is the most recent review of the active area of neuronal plasticity. The question of how experience is recorded is fundamental to psychology; speculations and investigations concerning the role of the brain in this process have entered a particularly exciting phase as of the late 1980's. Manipulations of environmental complexity is one of the earliest methods utilized in the study of neural plasticity. This monograph organizes the evidence to date concerning the responsiveness of neural and behavioural systems to external manipulation of the environment. Further consideration is given to the issues of causation of the general effects of environment on brain and behaviour.
Author: Pat Wolfe
Everyone agrees that what we do in schools should be based on what we know about how the brain learns. Until recently, however, we have had few clues to unlock the secrets of the brain. Now, research from the neurosciences has greatly improved our understanding of the learning process, and we have a much more solid foundation on which to base educational decisions. In this completely revised and updated second edition, Patricia Wolfe clarifies how we can effectively match teaching practice with brain functioning. Encompassing the most recent and relevant research and knowledge, this edition also includes three entirely new chapters that examine brain development from birth through adolescence and identify the impact of exercise, sleep, nutrition, and technology on the brain. Brain Matters begins with a "mini-textbook" on brain anatomy and physiology, bringing the biology of the brain into context with teaching and learning. Wolfe describes how the brain encodes, manipulates, and stores information, and she proposes implications that recent research has for practice--why meaning is essential for attention, how emotion can enhance or impede learning, and how different types of rehearsal are necessary for different types of learning. Finally, Wolfe introduces and examines practical classroom applications and brain-compatible teaching strategies that take advantage of simulations, projects, problem-based learning, graphic organizers, music, active engagement, and mnemonics. These strategies are accompanied by actual classroom scenarios--spanning the content areas and grade levels from lower elementary to high school--that help teachers connect theory with practice.