Author: Peter Gold
Publisher: Psychology Press
The year 2004 marks three hundred years since Britain took possession of Gibraltar, a rocky promontory at the foot of the Iberian Peninsula sometimes referred to as 'The Rock'. Gibraltar: British or Spanish? provides a detailed study of the attempts that have been made by Spain, especially since 1984 when Britain and Spain signed an agreement to discuss the future of Gibraltar, to regain the sovereignty of 'The Rock', despite the wishes of the Gibraltarians.
Author: Roy Adkins, Lesley Adkins
A rip-roaring account of the dramatic four-year siege of Britain’s Mediterranean garrison by Spain and France—an overlooked key to the British loss in the American Revolution For more than three and a half years, from 1779 to 1783, the tiny territory of Gibraltar was besieged and blockaded, on land and at sea, by the overwhelming forces of Spain and France. It became the longest siege in British history, and the obsession with saving Gibraltar was blamed for the loss of the American colonies in the War of Independence. Located between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, on the very edge of Europe, Gibraltar was a place of varied nationalities, languages, religions, and social classes. During the siege, thousands of soldiers, civilians, and their families withstood terrifying bombardments, starvation, and disease. Very ordinary people lived through extraordinary events, from shipwrecks and naval battles to an attempted invasion of England and a daring sortie out of Gibraltar into Spain. Deadly innovations included red-hot shot, shrapnel shells, and a barrage from immense floating batteries. This is military and social history at its best, a story of soldiers, sailors, and civilians, with royalty and rank and file, workmen and engineers, priests, prisoners of war, spies, and surgeons, all caught up in a struggle for a fortress located on little more than two square miles of awe-inspiring rock. Gibraltar: The Greatest Siege in British History is an epic page-turner, rich in dramatic human detail—a tale of courage, endurance, intrigue, desperation, greed, and humanity. The everyday experiences of all those involved are brought vividly to life with eyewitness accounts and expert research.
Author: Maurice Harvey
Publisher: Spellmount, Limited Publishers
A large format paperback edition of the comprehensive, heavily illustrated history of Gibraltar from prehistoric times to the present day, including an invaluable visitor's guide to exploring the Rock.
Author: Gareth Stockey, Chris Grocott
Publisher: University of Wales Press
This modern history of Gibraltar updates and enhances scholarship on the Rock’s history by bringing together the author’s extensive archival research and developments in the secondary literature surrounding British Gibraltar. Central to its narrative is an examination of the development of a Gibraltarian community amidst British imperial rise and decline and Anglo-Spanish diplomatic vicissitudes. Gibraltar: A Modern History, is the first twenty-first century treatment of the Rock’s history and as such it augments and, in many ways, replaces older treatments of Gibraltar’s History.
Author: Henry Martyn Field
Publisher: New York, Charles Scribner's sons
A New New English
Author: Anja Kellermann
Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand
Gibraltar is a mere 2.5 square miles of British rock at the southern tip of the Iberian peninsula. Yet this microcosm is home to 20,000 Gibraltarians. In the wake of age-old geo-political, social and cultural tensions, a unique language contact situation has emerged. Since the arrival of the British in 1704, Spanish and English have coexisted in the colony: English as the language of the colonial masters, and Spanish/Yanito as that of the local people. Over the last 60 years, however, this diglossic situation has gradually changed, with the Gibraltarians adopting English as their 'mother tongue'. The result has been the institutionalisation of the language and the emergence of a new New English. This empirical study conducts an instrumental analysis of this localised form of English, revealing its nativisation process. The analysis pinpoints the distinctive features of 'Gibraltarian English' and posits that a focussing process is in progress. Implementing a qualitative/quantitative analysis of sociolinguistic data, the author also explores the mechanisms behind the speech community's language usage, attitudes and ideology. Over time Gibraltarians' changing conceptions about English and Spanish have reflected their perceived identity of themselves as British and/or Gibraltarians. This book reveals Gibraltar as speech community in search of an identity. It is a people aware of its multicultural heritage, determined in its continued rejection of Spanish claims on sovereignty, and increasingly ambivalent toward its colonial past.
Defending the Rock
Author: Nicholas Rankin
Publisher: Faber & Faber
Adolf Hitler's failure to take Gibraltar in 1940 lost him the Second World War. But in truth the formidable Rock, jutting between the Mediterranean and the Atlantic, was extraordinarily vulnerable. Every day, ten thousand people crossed its frontier to work, spy, sabotage or escape. It was threatened by Spain, Vichy France, Italy and Germany. After the USA entered the war, Gibraltar became General Eisenhower's strategic headquarters for the invasion of North Africa and the battle for the Mediterranean.
While much has been written about Gibraltar from historical and political perspectives, sociolinguistic aspects have been largely overlooked. This book describes the influences which have shaped the colony s linguistic development since the British occupation in 1704, and the relationship between the three principal means of communication: English, Spanish and the code-switching variant Yanito. The study then focuses its attentions on the communicative forms and functions of Gibraltarian English. The closing of the border between Gibraltar and Spain (1969-1982), which effectively isolated the colony, had important social and linguistic repercussions. This volume presents the first full account of the language attitudes and identity of a new generation of Gibraltarians, all of whom were born after the border was re-opened. Adopting a variationist approach, this study analyses the extent to which the language use and phonetic realisations of young Gibraltarians differ from those of previous generations and the factors conditioning language variation and change.
Author: Great Britain. Foreign and Commonwealth Office